my country’s gardens have a long history. Its artistic principle of “Although it is made by humans, it is natural to open”, and its comprehensive characteristics of integrating traditional architecture, literature, painting, calligraphy, sculpture and craftsmanship, it is unique in the history of world gardens. Enjoy a high status.
The scenery that sets off the main scenery is the background scenery, which can make the main scenery stand out. Within the same space, you can enjoy the main scenery from many positions and angles, and you can enjoy the main scenery in the main scenery. All the backgrounds have become the main objects of appreciation, so the main and backgrounds complement each other.
In the garden, when we climb up the pavilion, platform, tower, pavilion, we can see the opposite hall, mountain, bridge, and trees; in the opposite hall, bridge, gallery, etc. we can also see the pavilion and platform on this side, Towers, pavilions, this kind of framing method is called opposite scenery. The so-called “right” in opposite scenes means relative. I regard you as a scene, and you also regard me as a scene. There are many such sceneries in gardens, but it is not easy to do well. The scenery is natural, nature here is ambiguous, and nature is also related to distance. At a certain distance, the landscape seems uncomfortable. Jing is like a person. If two people who don’t know each other stand opposite each other at a distance of fewer than 2 meters, they will feel very awkward. The same is true for the scenery. If a small courtyard is viewed from both sides, there is such an unpleasant feeling. This is called “hard contrast”.
Obstacle scenery is a rule of classical garden art, which is “a scenery step by step, changing the scenery step by step”. The most typical application is the Suzhou gardens. The layout level and the construction of wood and stone are used to block and divide the scenery so that people cannot see. No more. In ancient times, what was emphasized was the depth of field and the sense of hierarchy. The so-called “wind path leads to quietness”, layer upon layer, people in the scene. Modern gardens originated from part of the theories of ancient gardens, combined with Western ideas. The theoretical structure is relatively mixed, but it is basically an exposition and enrichment of ancient ideas. Make the viewer jump off, although in the scene, but the scene is everywhere.
The space scene is not very impressive, or there is a scene in the ordinary. Use door frames, window frames, tree frames, caves, etc. to selectively capture the beautiful scenery of the space. Framed scenery: The doors, windows, holes, or tree branches of the buildings in the garden are surrounded by a frame, which often includes the beautiful scenery of the distant mountains and rivers or the human landscape. This is the framed scenery. In “Yuan Ye”, it says: “I use the powder wall as the paper and the stone as the painting. The rationalist is like the stone pattern, to prevent the brushwork of the ancients, plant the Huangshan pine and cypress, the ancient plum, and the beautiful bamboo. . Li Yu also talked about the application of framed scenery by setting up “wide-scale windows” or “unintentional windows” indoors to collect beautiful outdoor scenery.
The horizon of the distant scene is very wide in the horizontal direction, but it is not very moving. Therefore, in order to highlight the ideal scene, the left and right sides are often shielded by bushes, tree trunks, soil mountains or buildings, etc., thus forming a long and narrow space blocked by the left and right. This technique is called clipped scenery, which is one of the methods of using axis lines and perspective lines to highlight the contrasting scenery, which can increase the profound sense of the landscape. Clipping is a controlled way of framing. It can not only express specific interest and appeal (such as solemnity, far-reaching, forward, exploration, etc.), in order to strengthen the design conception, highlight the status of the perspective, and can Induce, organize, and gather the line of sight, so that the view space can be extended directionally until the climax of the end view.
Leaked scenes are developed from framed scenes. The framed scenery has a full view, and the missing scenery is subtle and elegant. Leaking scenery can be done by leaking windows, leaking walls, leaking screens, and sparse forests. The scenery structure of the drooping place should consider not only fixed-point static viewing but also the leakage effect of moving viewpoints to enrich the flickering and changing taste of the scenery. For example, the opening window at the entrance of Suzhou Lingering Garden leaks the view, and the continuous rose window at the Suzhou Lion Forest leaks the view.
Borrowed scenery refers to the introduction of scenery from outside the garden into the garden. Borrowing scenes are divided into 7 categories: near-borrowing, far-borrowing, neighboring borrowing, mutual borrowing, upward borrowing, over-boring, and timely borrowing. The methods usually include opening up perspective lines for viewing scenery, removing obstacles; raising the height of sights, breaking through the boundaries of gardens, and borrowing virtual scenery. The borrowing content includes: borrowing landscapes, animals, plants, buildings, etc.; borrowing people as landscapes; borrowing astronomical and meteorological landscapes. For example, the “True Meaning of Lakes and Mountains” in the Summer Palace in Beijing borrows the West Mountain as the background and the Yuquan Mountain near to enjoy the beautiful scenery when the sun sets and the sky is full of clouds. Consciously “borrow” the scenery outside the garden into the visual range of the garden.
Adding scenery refers to when there is no transitional scenery in the middle or near the natural scenery or cultural scenery in the distance, the space level is lacking when looking at it. If there is a tree or flower in the middle or near as a transitional scene in the middle or near, the tree or flower is an added scene. Adding scenery can be formed by architectural sketches, tree greening, etc. The tall and graceful trees, no matter one or several trees, can often play a good role in adding scenery.
Spotlight: Spotlight refers to the use of chanting and other techniques to draw the finishing touch to the scenery according to the characteristics of the scenery, that is, to decorate scenic spots or scenery with embellishment to make scenic spots richer and more vivid. Chinese gardens are good at grasping the characteristics of each landscape. According to its nature and purpose, combined with the scene and history of the space environment, it is highly generalized. It often makes garden chants with vivid, poetic, and deep artistic conception. Its forms are diverse and there are plaques. , Couplets, stone tablets, stone carvings, etc.
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